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Bw Defence


The howitzer was developed for the Swedish armed forces following a contract awarded to Bofors (now BAE Systems Bofors) in 2003 by Försvarets Materielverk (FMV), the Swedish defence acquisition agency to build two demonstrator howitzers. The prototype FH77 BW L52 self-propelled howitzers entered firing trials in Sweden in 2005 and 2006. In September 2006, the FMV placed a contract for detailed design work on Archer and, in January 2007, a contract for the next development phase. The Swedish Army had a requirement for 24 systems (two battalions). In September 2008, the Swedish government approved the final development and procurement of the Archer artillery system.




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Background: Hevamine is a member of one of several families of plant chitinases and lysozymes that are important for plant defence against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The enzyme can hydrolyze the linear polysaccharide chains of chitin and peptidoglycan. A full understanding of the structure/function relationships of chitinases might facilitate the production of transgenic plants with increased resistance towards a wide range of pathogens.


Almost all plants have scores of enemies that they have to fight off day in day out in order to survive. They include caterpillars that feed on living leaves, fungi that infest and digest plant tissue as well as pathogenic bacteria. Unlike animals, plants cannot run away from their enemies. Plants therefore need different strategies from animals to ensure their survival. They have developed a whole range of biochemical defence mechanisms either to deter their enemies or adversely affect the enemies' development. Plants can distinguish whether they are being attacked by bacteria, fungi or herbivores (e.g. caterpillars), and can adapt their defence response accordingly. After damage caused by herbivores, it only takes plant cells a few minutes to produce an active form of the phytohormone jasmonic acid, which then induces the release of inhibitors and defence substances. The hormone even "notifies" neighbouring plants of the danger.


Dr. Gabriel Schaar and his team at the Centre for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP) at the University of Tübingen are studying the complex defence mechanisms of plants. Until recently, they thought that the active form of the phytohormone jasmonic acid alone was enough to switch on the defence signalling pathway. To this end, the hormone recruits so-called JAZ proteins that normally suppress the activity of defence genes. The proteins are recruited to a so-called SCFCOI1 complex that induces the degradation of these repressor proteins. The JAZ proteins lose their suppression activity, resulting in the activation of a large number of defence genes. The biologists from Tübingen have now discovered that the SCFCOI1 complex, which is responsible for the recognition of active jasmonic acid, not only binds active jasmonic acid and JAZ repressor proteins, but is also able to bind another signalling molecule, namely inositol pyrophosphate (PP-IP).


"A functioning protein complex forms best when inositol pyrophosphate is also bound. This means that two molecules dock to the complex," says Schaaf. "Plants have an extremely effective defence mechanism as they can modulate the activation of defence genes via these two proteins. Plants also have an additional safety level that stops the defence mode being triggered prematurely. If this happens, the plant loses its fight against other plants in the competition for light and nutrients," adds the researcher.


France became the second country, after the United States, to sign a military logistics support agreement with India, in March last year. What are we expecting now that will further redefine the India- France defence and security coopetition?


With a strategic partnership dating back to 1998, India and France have developed a strong defence and security cooperation over the years, based on mutual trust. This cooperation has gained new momentum under the leadership of Premier Minister Modi and President Macron. They share the same conviction: our strategic partnership is even more relevant today and needs to be developed to address the challenges of the 21stcentury, be it in the Indo-Pacific, in cyberspace or in space. This year again, we stood side by side to confront terrorism.France and Indian share common interests but also basic values and principles such as democracy and respect for the rule of law. This is why our two countries need to stand side by side and are prepared to further deepen their defence and security cooperation.


The Defence Command and Staff College will be a world class institute that offers military and academic excellence for developing selected officers to the highest intellectual and military professional standards for effective command and control of the defence force to respond to defence and security challenges. 041b061a72


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